Employment in an Organization



Employees form a vital component of every change process in an organization.   International Business Machines Corporation focuses on two transformational imperatives.  International Business Machines Corporation enables the transformation of the workforce into high performance, innovation and productivity of the institution. High performance helps businesses to thrive and survive the problems affecting changes in the transformation of the business, (Herbert, 2011). Business model transformation and process optimization offer the control of services and operations from the point of the business. Although, this is a consensus, organizations continue to struggle with the issue of employees’ resistance during changes. Given that change has become a necessity in modern organizations, it is imperative to understand how to manage employees change resistance.

 International Business Machines Corporation has been able to change most of its operation to suit the innovative individuals in the workforce. Motto of International Business Machines Corporation has been the building of a smarter planet. Open technologies and high-value solutions help in the management and delivery of integration and innovation of the clients. Changes within the commoditized businesses and acquiring over 60 companies within the past five years have assured the complement and scale of portfolio offerings and products. Another change has been on the shifting of the geographical mix for the organization. Changes have allowed the strengthening of the virtualization measures, information on demand, service-oriented architecture and business consulting. Change is a common thread that integrates into the fabric of personal and professional lives.  Change occurs in the physical environment, and the way organizations are structured, political and economic environment and also social norms and values, (Herbert, 2011).  Organizational development efforts bring about change within organizations and teams.  Globalization has opened numerous opportunities and market for organizations. However, the increasing diverse markets have varied c needs and expectations that organizations must understand. Organizational change helps organizations optimize performance. 

Change occurs as a reaction to the ever-changing environment.  In proactive situations, change is triggered by progressive managers.  International Business Machines Corporation focuses on enabling organizational growth, enabling productivity and enabling cultural changes. Enablement of growth has made the firm to offer growth market leadership, acquisitions and mergers proposal, client value and focus and superior sales enablement. Another focus area for the changes has been on enabling productivity. Information Technology enablement, business process excellence and globally shared services have offered the sustained strength of International Business Machines Corporation in the global Market. International Business Machines Corporation has invested in collaborative innovations, value-based culture and transformational leadership.

 Researchers have offered varied change theories including teleological, and life-cycle and dialectical theories have been developed to explain causes of organizational changes. According to the teleological theory, organizational change is a continuous attempt to achieve an ideal state through continuous processes of setting goals, executing goals, evaluation and restructuring, (Herbert, 2011).  The life-cycle theory states that organizations are entities that depend on the external environment, which undergoes through stages of birth, growth, maturation and declination.   The dialectical theory hypothesizes that organizations are as multicultural societies with opposing values. 


 The research focuses on the evaluation of the employee’s role for the change process.  Employee role for the change process will be assessed in the literature review. Importance of employees, Role of Human Resource in Change transformation and Employee’s Resistance to change will be assessed in the evaluation of the change process research.  International Business Machines Corporation case study will assess the corporate change process for change drivers, International Business Machines organization and Workforce transformation. Change drivers and Workforce Management Initiative (WMI) for International Business Machines Corporation will be evaluated in the literature review. Research methodology will evaluate the application of the systematic review of the organization. Discussion section will evaluate of the employee’s role for the change process on International Business Machines Corporation. Conclusion will recap on the information needed for the management.


The purpose of the study is to investigate how successful multinationals have been able to manage change resistance among employees. The case study analysis will track how IBM, one of the largest Information Technology Company in the UK managed to transform its operation and maintain an innovative workforce. It is projected that the case study will provide key themes in the management of human resources during the change process.


This case study uses a single, embedded case study design.  According to Yin (2009) the decision to conduct a single-case study, as oppose to multiple studies, can be rationalized as suitable by its uniqueness or revelation.  A unique case study should provide rare case that is worth investigation.  A revelatory case study involves the problem.

The following hypothesis will be used to explore the change process of IBM.

 H1: International Business Machines Corporation commitment, change-related communication and participation predicts the success of organizational change process

H2: Abrupt planning has led to International Business Machines Corporation state of being unsuccessful in the management of the organizational change process.

Definition of Terms


It is the shift of the business external situation through the impacts of employees and internal structures of the business.


It is the internal Three-phase psychology or re-orientation for employees to go through as they come with terms of change. Inner experiences are not necessarily focused on the results or outcomes of transition or changes.

Change management

It was an approach used for the transitional requirement for organizations, teams and individuals for the desired future state.

Chapter Two: Literature review

Employees have a role in the change process. Change can occur in different types of performance. Incremental or micro-level of operational level building and change assessment helped in the evaluation of the for adding up the major changes for the type of changes allowing us to use the existing references required for the management of employees.  International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) implements Transformative type of change. Transformative changes offer the fundamental changes in the culture, structure and process for the organization.

            Employees can perceive changes on different sides. Modernist and sophisticated modernist changes for the organization have been  implemented on the assessment of approaches for the organization. Change is considered continuous, evolutionary and incremental for the ultimate predictability. Another perception is on the offered sophisticated modernist. Employees can perceive the changes to be dynamic, complex or transformational. Sophisticated modernist aids in the assessment and evaluation of the pressures required for the organization and requirement of the organization.

2.1. Importance of employees

Change processes adversely affect the employees within the organization. Strategic managers are forced to align their approaches through the providence of the reasonable care requirement for the organization. Employees of the organization will benefit the organization once they accept and implement changes. Cost of training and continuous workshops can be avoided through the implementation of the procedures for change assessment. Employee’s offer the organization leverage to forge agenda’s, in the market. Liabilities affect the setting of the liability issues for the organizational approaches, (Yang, 2011). Corporation of the employers on safety and health matters assure the definition of the best procedures for the success of the organization. Misuse of equipments and safety matters have helped in the management of the tasks required in the organization of activities for the management of approaches for the institution.  

            Organizational leaders have been forced to include the assessment of the procedures required for the evaluation and control of the management in the improvement of the organizational performance of activities. Staff are required in the changing the decisions for the factors of assessing views. Close knowledge of the transformative changes for processes and systems helps in the success of the organization. Employees of the organization are required to evaluate the loss for the discussion of sessions and activity performances. Choice of a diverse project team will assure the evaluation and control of the organization in the management of tasks.

            Management is required to realize that the business culture is directed by the activities of building a new culture of continuous improvement for the business. Sharing of observations and ideas offer the organization of the forums and capturing or recognizing the inputs and celebrating the share successes for the organization. Breakdown of the changes will be required for the organization.

2.2. Role of Human Resources in Change transformation

HRM focuses on the management of the employees. Change management offers the problem solving offered the movement from the state of another from the present state. Coordination of the structured periods of transition offered the situation one to another. Changes offer the achievement of the lasting changes within the institution, (Yang, 2011). Change management offered the preparation of the changes in the future and presents statement. Strengthening the agility, peripheral vision and internal resilience is offered the changes in the organization. HRM manages the negative reactions offered for the management of the tasks. HRM offers the rejection, compliance and acceptance on the management of changes. Acceptance, depression, bargaining, battle, antagonism, anger and denial affect the state of changes in IBM. HRM can manage resistance through the management of the following issues. These are fear of the unknown, fearing of redundancy, fear of aspiration, structuring displacement and learning aversion for the evasion of employee’s resistance to changes for all employees in the workforce.

  1. Dave Ulrich Model of Human Resource roles

The model focused on the administrative expert, employee champion, change champion and strategic partnership.  Dave Ulrich Model helped in the definition of objectives, goals, processes and jobs for the operation model. The model helped in the definition of the approaches that Human resources can be organized and how it can deliver the key objectives and goals. Definition of the Human resource roles helped in the delivery of requirements for the internal customers, (Trevor, 2011). Dave Ulrich Model defined new strategic agenda for human resources of defining the strategic functions of the role of Human resource organization. Creative or innovative requirements assured the devotion for the agile and modern Human Resource management. Employee relation, Human Resource development, leadership development and organizational design are the overall requirements stated for human resource managers. The roles for Human Resource in change management are as follows.

            First assessments of the role are the business partners. Strategic role of human resources forces the management of the movement of the different tasks required for the management of the organization. Construction of a strategic relationship and partnership help in the assessment of the dedicated internal clients. Acting on the single points assures the contact assessment of the internal clients. Representation of organizational design offers the identification of the key top talents. Identification of the key know-how holders will help in spreading the knowledge across the organization. Cross-functional projects help in increasing the support innovations and development of talents.

            Secondly, HRM should be centered on change management. Changing of approaches offered the function assessment of human resource management. Human Resource participated in the change management team that looked at taking the responsibilities for the communication of the changes internally and assuring trust of employees. Change may also be resisted because it poses threats to the way people or employees make sense of the world questioning their values and rationality and promoting self-justification or defensive reasoning, (Herbert, 2011). Some employees’ resistance to change is motivated by mere selfishness such as lack of vision, fear of relocation and other minor factors. Planning will help in the elimination of the possible change resistance. Human Resource planning offers training sessions for employees to be able to help them in the gaining of new skills and competencies for the changed roles. Support of changes in the organization offered the management of the lead initiatives that helped in making the changes to be easier for the employees.

            Thirdly, the management looks at the possible ways of managing the transaction role to the human resources. Human Resource focuses on the demonstration of the deep knowledge for the trade unions, labor laws and legislation. Managers responsible for implementing change often blame others for the failure of change rather than accepting their responsibility in the failure of the change process. Employees are also likely to do the same and assign blame for failed changes to managers rather than themselves.  Administration leaders will be needed for the evaluation of the approaches needed for the organization. Lastly, Human resource managers have a duty for advocating employee rights. Lastly, employee advocacy will offer the employees to champion the core of Human Resource Role. Human Resource management ensures the employees have the fair chances for the application of the new roles to the organization. HRM leads the initiative of improving the experience of the employees in the organization.

2.3. Employee’s Resistance to change

Resistance has been defined as adherence to any attitudes or behaviours that thwart organizational change goals and any conduct that serves to maintain status quo in the face of demands to change. Employees are afraid to lose particularly security, money, pride and satisfaction, friends, freedom, authority, responsibility and good working conditions. Resistance behaviours in an organization can be manifested overtly and covertly.  Human Resource managers are required to focus on the provision of changes that can be helpful in the management of the organizational tasks. Provision of the impetus for the conducting of the changes for the organizational stratum focused on the providence of the states for employee’s professional advancement, (Trevor, 2011). Resistance may occur when employees distrust or have past resentments toward leaders of change and when they have varied understanding or assessment of the change process. Resistance is a tridimensional attitude toward change that includes affective and cognitive components that correlate dispositional resistance to change.

 Management challenges change through the alignment of the top management with the different employees. Differences in employees’ response to change their misunderstanding about the change or personal attributes and characteristics. Managers often perceive resistance negatively and see employees who resist change as disobedient. Understanding the reason and cause of resistance to change to help change implementers to prevent disasters and improve the outcome of the change process.  Development of the requirements for appropriate organizational agility and employee innovation has been required in the assessment of activities. Reinforcement of change management offered the communication as a driver for the attainment of the effective changes. Research has shown that any transformation to status quo, that employees draw a sense of insecurity in work-group and set routines, leads in an experience of personal loss. 

            Human Resource managers fail in the state of diagnosing problems, building of relationships with the clients, ensuring the vision is properly communicated and in the solving of the problems.  Failure of the Human Resource managers to uphold managerial control of change can lead to the following.   Some of the commonly observed negative attitudes toward change include derision of the change among secondary staffs and peer groups, boycotting change conferences and sabotage, (Herbert, 2011). Resistance to change is also viewed like a force detrimental to organizational functioning. Overt resistance to change is determined through its detrimental effects on employees’ attitude, behaviours and organizational attitudes. Lack of change or problem solving capabilities affects the state of managing changes required in the placement of changes within the organization. Human Resource can be unable to manage risk, manage projects, manage conflicts or coordinate the effective communication, (Strauss, 2011). Application of the knowledge on the work affects the coordination of the effective communication of the organization. Focus on the improvement of the Human Resource change management helps in offering the best transition for the employees. Employees’ reaction to change will be positive characterized by the expression of commitment and receptivity or negative characterized with expressions of resistance, cynicism and stress.

2.4. Case study:  International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)

International Business Machines Corporation is a public trading company operating in over 60 different countries.  International Business Machines Corporation trades in different stock exchange markets. International Business Machines Corporation offers Information Technology consulting services, Information Technology services, Computer software and computer hardware, (Jose, 2011). It was formed on June 16th, 1911, in New York. Founders of the organization were Watson Thomas and Flint Charles. Organization offers international services to the whole world.  International Business Machines Corporation recorded revenue of 99.751 billion dollars and a dropping operating income of 16.524 billion. A great concern is on the management of employees of the organization.  International Business Machines Corporation has 431212 recorded employees in its organization. Employees are divided over the software, services, hardware and financing institutions. Provision of the large number of employees has forced the development of change initiatives and proposals from the operations within the organization.

2.4.1. Employees and the corporate change process

Research indicates that employees’ resistance has been identified as the primary source of change implementation failure. Literature suggests that employees’ resistance may be because of management failure to acknowledge or value employees’ input, to manage change-related issues, and to consider the effect of workforce involvement on change preparation, implementation and sustainability, (Jose, 2011).   Resistance to change should be carefully discerned and managed.   International Business Machines Corporation change has offered the changing of the culture through leadership proposal. IBM corporate management has focused on playing of offensive approaches for the market segments. Integration of International Business Machines Corporation has forced the uplift of changes for the climate, culture, formal organization requirements and support of employee changes. The corporate landscape of change is uncharted, discontinuous, posted with job losses, longer working hours, higher and cumulative stress levels, unethical practices and corporate failures.  Corporate change is centered on mergers, acquisitions, profitability, shareholder values and so on.  Corporate change process has incorporated the following initiatives for the employees.

            First, International Business Machines Corporation has formed the performance team management. Collective responsibilities for the success of International Business Machines Corporation ensured organizational accountability of results. Employees and supervisors have been charged the responsibility of assuring accountability in the reporting of the results needed in the organization, (Strauss, 2011). Cross-unit integration of key functional leadership and general managers of the department have been focused upon by the International Business Machines Corporation management in the evaluation and support for changes for the employees. Secondly, International Business Machines Corporation has focused on the assessment of values and integration of teams, (Jose, 2011). Accountability of the management offered the active leadership integration efforts and improvement of the International Business Machines Corporation effectiveness and growth requirement.  International Business Machines Corporation corporate changing process has been based on the evaluation of the active leading integration efforts for the improvement of International Business Machines Corporation’s growth and effectiveness. Corporate management has focused on the communication and alignment of the International Business Machines Corporation strategies. Divisions within the organization have been charged with the task of assessing and controlling the state of performance of the organization and assessment of duties.

 Workforce Management Initiative (WMI)

 International Business Machines Corporation has been able to implement the initiative for the management of the transforming processes to tools. Capturing of the global employee expertise details has been based on the definition of the expertise taxonomy. Analysis of the demand and supply for the workforce planning cycle helps in the achievement of the different procedures and requirements offered for the organization.  International Business Machines Corporation has transformed in the guiding the decisions for matching the employees capabilities with the channel control and opportunity marketplace requirements.  International Business Machines Corporation have fostered Human Resource approaches that can improve the employee’s visibility for the recruitment or hiring effectiveness, (Jose, 2011).

Provision of personalized learning directions will help in the management and evaluation of the tasks needed for innovation development. Utilization of the workforce helped in matching the expertise for the available projects. Sourcing of contractors through the preferred suppliers will help in basing the best rates. Changes framework for International Business Machines Corporation has focused on separation, recruitment, redeployment and retrain of the organization. Supply or demand matching helps in the matching of the demand with the supply for understanding the projected resources excesses and shortages for the taking of actions to balance supply. Capturing of the supply forces the management to assess the needs for understanding the capabilities and expertise of the workforce.

2.4.2 Change drivers

Change drivers for the organization are based on the management of paradigms, quality, efficiency, resource utilization and fast response for the organization. Change drivers occasionally focus on resistant conduct resulting from negative attitudes toward an organizational transformation, and disregarding the reasons underlying these behaviours.  Drivers for the improvement of the innovative workforce are the following. First, decentralization pressure has been offered for the management of the complex changes.  International Business Machines Corporation has incorporated the employees in decentralization through opportunities for participation in change is also acknowledged on the way of helping to reduce negative attitudes toward transformations, (Patrick, 2011). Decentralization of power has been needed on the branches in other countries to be able to accommodate the desires of other people within the society.

 Secondly, International Business Machines Corporation has been affected by the effect of downsizing. A tough economic time has made numerous competitors have laid-off their employees to increase the effectiveness and competitive advantage requirement. Increase in the state of performing activities for the organization has assured the increase of productivity in the management of tasks for the organization. Emphasis on quality have aided in the development and management of tasks for the organization in the analysis and evaluation of activities for the organization, (Jose, 2011). Diverse workforce and increased rate for changes can impact the productivity of assessing and management of tasks required for the organizational improvement. Another driver is the rise on the growing complexities of Information Technology businesses. Organizations have offered communication on the possible ways of managing tasks and requirements of the markets. Stakeholder’s or customers wishes help in quality assessment.

  2.4.3 IBM Organization and Workforce transformation

Dynamic workforces can increase the state for the global dispersion and multigenerational and multicultural.  For the changing for the technology understanding for the acceptance and commit of the changes will be required, (Lee, 2011). Diversity of employees and the organization will offer the realization of the right talent and workforce business strategies for the inclusion of the business model transformation, innovation and growth. Adoption of optimal talent management will help in the reflection of the requirements posed for the changing workforce. Optimizing and understanding the workforce performance will help in the collaboration, development and planning of the organization through the performance management. Management of the transition to a new business will be based on the assurance of the business competitiveness and productivity. Transformation of the business has been offered in the following areas.

            First, learning transformation addresses the need for the inspiration and equipping people in the business to improve the performance, knowledge and skills requirement for results. Alignment of the learning initiatives will help in offering support for the development of the business goals, organizational and development of the learning strategies. Harnessing of the power of technology will offer the enhanced performance and learn for the organization, (Lee, 2011). Secondly, there has been a change on talent management. Talent management practices have been based on offering recognition, rewards, succession management, performance and covering of the talent sourcing.

Changes have been placed on system implementation, process design and change management. Social business initiative has been offered by the management on the performance of the institutional knowledge for the organization and the organizational ecosystems. Optimization and workforce analytics changes have been offered for the designing of the evidence-based strategies. Organizational design enabled the enterprise aligning the organizational business model and strategies for maximizing the effectiveness of the clarification of work.

2.5 Transformational leadership

Impact of Lou Gerstner was the most felt issue experienced to be transformative. Manager determined the assessment that the organization will not die in the changes happening in the market. Marketing and production teams focused on reaffirming competitors of the technical heritage required for the evaluation of tasks. The organization rewired the enterprise through the transformation of the critical processes required for the need of becoming E-Business. Acquisition of other corporations within the changes in the organization offered the successful approaches for the organization. Leaders of the business sort for the open markets to provide their products. Movement to the new markets assured the offering of the best state for the corporate world. The company’s Human Resource department has enabled the company to absorb over 125 acquisitions since 2000 and integrate globally.  Over the last one decade, International Business Machines Corporation has undertaken major steps to improve its operations.  Standards for the organization offered the decision of setting up the standards for the organization.

Another transformational move was the placement of the operations for the organization in the state of Asia. Capturing of the new markets will aid in the achievement of procedures needed for the organization. The extended history and heritage oblige to refer and consider the experiences, knowledge and important stories. This holds true because the manager who oversaw the transformation of International Business Machines Corporation will provide insight, (Lee, 2011). International Business Machines Corporation has offered global teamwork; a move from an international organization to an internationally integrated enterprise that has global standards and processes. The openness and almost unlimited access to documents, meetings and people will allow the research to follow an ethnographic approach by being involved in the natural settings of the company.  Transformational frameworks forced the International Business Machines Corporation to offer the clients in the market-place an opportunity to assess the labs are offering changes in the organization. Rise in the E-business helped in the assurance of the possible ways of managing finances offered in the organizations.

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.1. Case study methodology

Case study method is the best in the identification of the aspect for the assessment and definition.  Evaluation of International Business Machines Corporation will assess the employee’s survey and journal reports records. Evaluation of the assessment will help in the assessment and management of the probable task evaluation. The case study is an empirical investigation that examines events within its context, when the limits between phenomenon and the circumstance are not evident. The case study uses a single, embedded case study design. The dissertation will follow the grounded approach as a general strategy that is used for qualitative research, (Leinsdorf, 2011).  Its claim is to generate concepts and variables from data that is beached in the empirical field. A case study approach will allow systematic grasping of the contextual details in the real-life context, which is vital to understand how situations are by relating them beyond situational perspective. The basic idea behind selecting the case study approach is fully to understand the change process in natural settings, its complexity and contexts to help answer the research questions.  Data, figures and facts assure the definition of the industrial reports and evaluation.  Case study assessment focuses on the development of logical thinking, analytic and evaluation of the strategic planning skills. Facilitation enhances the domain learning experience. Case study offers the actual administrative situation involving the decision for making the problems be solved.

            Case study methodology will implement the use of theory and conceptual categories that will guide the analysis and research of the data. It was qualitative procedure and systematically used generation for the broad conceptual level, action and process for the interactions about the substantive topics. Case study methodology is distinguished from traditional research procedures by the fact data analysis does not end after data collection has been finished but several set of data are collected and analyzed.  The approach is helpful in capturing richer and more realistic understanding of the organizational phenomenon.  Therefore, this strategy is suited for addressing the research questions by examining how International Business Machines Corporation successfully managed change and the transformation of its culture with minimal employee resistance.  Data collection was evaluated on the assessment of the documents, observation and videotapes.

Design decisions

Research has indicated the prospects of having an assessment of International Business Machines Corporation as one organization. This research strategy will aim at developing theoretical information in an exploratory what by linking data collection, analysis and theorization.  Assessment of the cases allows the involvement of multiple cases and single sense of assessment. Problems of the single cases offer the generalization of several information-processing biases. Limitations of the single-case study help in the inclusion of the desirable one-case study in the study, (Norman and Catherine, 2011).  Research will offer theoretical work for re-evaluation in advance to enable one to enter the field with an open mind. Desiring of the depth perspective for the International Business Machines Corporation assessment will help in the realization of the intrinsic needs needed for the evaluation of the organization. Statistical sampling helps in the achievement of the replicated extension for the emergent theory of filling theoretical categories and providing examples for polar types of assessment.

Choice of cases help in the recommendations which find cases matching the three dimensions of the dependent variable  and providing variation for contextual factors which represent the polar cases, (Norman and Catherine, 2011). Researcher will match the choices of the outcome to the organizational integration and choice of the purpose needed for the assessment of the organizational boundaries and evaluations. Research design can offset the intrinsic limits of the case studies and response to the solid evidence used for the extrapolation of the reasoned approaches offered for the research study. Limits the sets of case levels form the assessment of the systematic approaches applicable for replication of social sciences and research. Case study selection will be transparent to avoid the replication of the systematic evaluation in the future.

Applicability of the case study

Intrinsic nature of the assessment of the change frameworks offered by the individuals poses the expression of the varied states of assessing the evaluation process for the organization. A case study intrinsically examines a bounded system in detail, which the literature review identified as key in the management of change resistance. The study seeks to discovery of the brunt of communication, participation and affective organizational commitment on   change process. Study examines the mediating role of workforce.  The evaluation of the information assures the triangulation of the important points for the assurance of the validity of the research. Investigators, theory and data sources will work to offer validly triangulated findings and qualitative evaluations. Concepts of validation for qualitative and quantitative research offer the confusion on the combination of case studies. The logic behind the use of the case study extends to addressing the key questions of the study and the purpose of the study.  Exploration of the extreme states of the research will aid in the evaluation of the different items needed for the assessment and evaluation of the research.

3.2. Evaluation procedures

             The researcher will evaluate the different competitors and IBM’s state of change management and change frameworks offered over the past. Assessment of the organizational performance of duties will aid in the evaluation of the tasks needed for the valuation of activities needed in the organization, (Mohammad, 2010). Literature review will be assessed in the overall state of procedures offered in the assessment of facts for the organization. Evaluation of the tasks helps in the management and evaluation of the possible ways of increasing the profitability of the organization. Literature review will offer the ideographic assessment of information needed for the evaluation of tasks. Quality control of the synthesis procedures helps in the assessment of the procedures needed for the evaluation of tasks needed in the research.

            Journal articles and surveys will be needed in the evaluation of the tasks required for the evaluation of tasks for the organization. Articles and surveys will be collected from the reputable state of assessing the valuations needed for the valuation processes. Journal articles will be excluded with years and author’s level of sophistication. Quality control offers the synthesis of procedures required for the evaluation of the exclusion of studies in the analysis of meta-interpretation, (Mohammad, 2010).  Systematic reviews help in out setting the re-interpretation of the original research for the valid ways to proceeding. Content of research will be located in the assessment of the original interpretations for trusted and excluded analysis. Systematic review of the articles will help in the generation of the required documentation for information evaluations. Analysis of steps will help in the management of the tasks needed for the evaluation and control of evaluation for the research. Interview findings will guide the research in assessment of different company documents and journals. Evaluation of the assessment will help in the management of the different forms of information needed in the assessment of organizational procedures.

            Triangulation method will help in the unification of all the collected data. The documentation will offer the information on the possible ways of managing the assessment of the employee’s role in change process. Triangulated information will be offered in synergy of evaluating the hypothesis offered in the research evaluation.  Sampling of interviews will help in the offering of the desires detailed in the knowledge of the cases for grasping the different participant’s views and aims.

3.2.1. Interviews

Research will require the interviewing of the literature assessment for the colleges and the companies before the interview. Literature assessment will help in utilizing the state of questioning within the interviews, (Mohammad, 2010). Literature review assesses the questions are developed for data to address the questions that have been identified. Interviewees will include company managers, Human resource manager, staff supervisors and employees. Scheduling of the meetings was based on the schedules needed for the evaluation of the different tasks and requirements assured in the evaluation of tasks. Interviewers can help in guiding the discussion of the additional insight or depth for the management of the organization. State of key interviewees helps in discussing the gaining of additional insight or depth of assessment.

The company managers, Human resource manager, staff supervisors and employees were communicated using official letters and email letters. Permission for the interview will be sent to the Chief Executive Officer of IBM. Interview permission request will be centered on the state of evaluating time of assessment and interviews assessment. Therefore, an instrument guiding the interviews will be developed. Interviews will be conducted with key employees at the different levels of the company that was involved or affected by the change process.  The interviews will be conducted suing semi-structured questionnaires covering the entire spectrum of change management, (Leinsdorf, 2011). Individuals that were not reached through the interviews were offered questionnaires for the assessment of the evaluation. Interview will require note taking pad and a tape recorder for the recording of the communication. Most interviews will be focused on the lunch hour space. In-depth interviews will be conducted in a manner in which the respondents’ insights, attitudes, opinion and impressions about the change or transformation process emerge during the interview. Research questions will be open-ended to offer an assessment and evaluation of the roles of the employees in change process. Specific questions related to the transformation of the company, and the change process will be asked.

3.2.2. Documentation and observations

Additional sources of the data for the study include company’s documents, articles and websites and observations. First, evaluation will begin with the identification of reputable database for the assessment of the employee’s role in change process. EBSCO HOST, COCHRANE and Pub Med database for journal articles, will be used in the evaluation of the research, (Mohammad, 2010). Unpublished studies, dissertations and reputable companies studies will be assessed in the evaluation of the different requirements needed for the valuation and assessment of procedures offered for the assessment and evaluation of the tasks. Secondly, documentations will be assembled to await the assessment and evaluation of the tasks needed in the organization. Eligibility criteria will be needed for the assessment and evaluation of procedures for the organization.    Documents and observations will be used to provide triangulation of emergent practices.  These documents will be sourced and used with the permission of the company and the relevant authorities. Qualitative and quantitative journal articles will be evaluated in the assessment of the topics offered in the assessment.

            Thirdly, the research will eliminate all the articles that were offered after five year’s span. The exclusion criteria will serve as a form removing the possible errors in the evaluation. Errors can occur on the state of owning the data entry and abstraction process. Tables tend to be misinterpreted in the evaluation of the copyediting of errors. Minimization of errors in the assessment will be through the implementation of the following states. More than two independent reviewers will be used to assess the third reviewer or consensus for meetings used to resolve conflicts, (Leinsdorf, 2011). Train reviewers will be able to focus on practicing the possible calibrated requirements. Assessment of text and abstract inconsistencies will be assessed for the provision of correct information of assessment. Reporting of the results will help in the offering of concordance or even a kappa statistic. Fourth, Random effects model will be used in the consideration of the variability of findings. Assumption will focus on the study of the random sample of the universe from the possible studies of the researcher. Observation of the interview findings will help in evaluating the true state of the employee’s findings and articles findings.

3.3. Data analysis

 Data analysis will enforce the qualitative method of analysis. Data analysis should start early in the data collection process so as to assist the researcher’s reflection upon interview questions and other data collection methods, thus enabling improvement as the data collection progresses.   Findings from data collected and the insight from recorded interviews will help in the identification of the experts who were surveyed using the micro-Delphi technique, (Margaret, 2011). Desk analysis and research offer the available assessment of documentations and data conducted in identifying the main drivers of barriers to implementation of the specific initiatives selected for the effects of the city governance models. Reports of the cases have been produced on the quantitative data in terms of outputs-inputs of specific initiatives. Data will base the findings on the possible states of comprehensiveness and accuracy of the study.   Data triangulation helps in the achievement of the typical state of case studies research.

Quantitative and qualitative data focuses on the outputs, perception and outcomes of the evaluation on the evaluation of procedures needed in the assessment of measured and designed framework under the development, (Margaret, 2011). Based on the results of the preliminary data from the questionnaires, practices identified will be investigated in the company through observation. After the first data analysis, second interviews will be conducted further to investigate human resource practices.

3.4 Research setting

Research setting for the assessment of the role of employees in change process will evaluate the transformative leadership offered in the IBM. Evaluation of theory offers the acquisition of theory assisting the explanation of different things. Actions can tend to be spontaneous and carefully weight on the results of the values, priorities and beliefs. Exert teachings, observation of concrete phenomena and conceptual structures will require the imposition of the incident needed for the valuation of the research.

3.5. Ethics, Validity and Reliability  

 Ethics in the evaluation will be maintained through the following measures. Employees and managers will be offered informed consent before interviews. Participants will be offered the right to withdraw from the evaluation of the operations for the business, (Margaret, 2011). Confidentiality of participants of the interview will be maintained by the management. Protection from emotional harm and physical harm can help in the evaluation and assessment of procedures for the evaluation of activities.

            Reliability of the data will be based on the consistency of the findings obtained in the evaluation. Participants will be randomly picked by the researcher for evaluation of the role of employees in change process, (Mikhail, 2011). Validity measure will evaluate the accuracy or validity of the researched documentation. Focus groups will be formed for the increase of accuracy of the generated findings from the research. Representative sampling will be implemented in the evaluation of tasks and procedures of the organization.


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