Topic:Lab report about kids laugh in presence of dogs and cats


Volume: 6 pages

Type: Report

Format: APA


Write the report according to instruction given.

Quantitative lab report about kids laughter in presence of cats and dogs on kids from 0 – 2 years.
The Lab report should have cca. 1500 words and the following structure :
Abstract cca.250 words
Introduction ( cca.500 words)
Background – previous studies about kids form attachments with other humans , evidences that this helps to socialise , evidences that suggests humans and animals can form attachments to each other too, and evidences that having pets may improve kid s socialisation .Additional , evidences that kids may form attachments more to some animals that other , evidences that suggest often kids often say that dogs are their favourite animals .
Existing studies on fav animals have used older kids and ASKED them about their preferences, but we know that attachments often form early in childhood. Evidences whether kids have preferences for particular animals too.
Building the rationale !
The present study used an OBSERVATIONAL design – observed kid s ( 0-2 YEARS) behaviour with animal rather than asking them about the preferencies.
RESEARCH Question; / what we are investigating / trying to find out
HYPOTHESIS : SPECIFICALLY RELATED TO OUR STUDY :our prediction( experimental hypothesis ) and the null hypothesis( our prediction does not occur)

30 participants between 0- 2 years , recorded in the presence of a cat or dog , in home environment,
The length of the clips was about 50 secs. The researchers observed the clips in 11 groups and the results were later combined , Experimenter codes each clips according to :
Animal ( cat or dog )
Laughter ( present or absent in the clip)
Participants genders were mixed ,as we can’t be sure due to the small age .
Design OBSERVATIONAL – Variables must be mentioned .
Materials – the clips were recorded previously and then showed to the researchers for the experiment.
PROCEDURE- the clips were showed to the students during the seminar class and they were asked to count how many time the laughter was present / absent in the presence of cats/ dogs. The researchers coded the clips as : animal ( cat/ dog) , laughter ( present /absent).

Chi square test has to be run! ; this will test the relationship between 2 variables; variable1 : animal – 2 levels (dogs and cats ).
Variable 2 : laughter – 2 levels ( present and absent).
The consensus about the variable
Dog laughter

10 Cat laughter
Dog- no laughter
6 Cat – no laughter

30 participants divided according to variable 1( animal)& Variable 2 ( laughter ).
After the SPSS will analyse the results using the Chi Square test we should get the :
Contingency table ( observed, expected and the total values )
Chi square value
P value for the Chi square test
Cramer’s V value

Treatment of data
How were the variables scored- each clip was codes according to two categorical variables ( animal : cat or dog and laughter – present / absent ). It has to be mentioned that coding was taking place in 11 groups of experimenters – the most common set of observed frequencies was taken as the final set of data.
Descriptive statistics
No Spss table !!!

Inferential statistics
Should contain the report of the information from spss tables , the SIGNIFICANCE of the relationship and the Strength of the relationship . The followed template can be used:
A 2X2 Chi square test analysis found a { significat/ non significat } association between [ variable 1 ] and [variable 2 ], (x2( d.f) = [ chi square value ] ,p= [ significance (P) value]). Cramer’s V value squared % of the variance in [variable1 ] could be accounted for by [ variable 2].___% of the variance is unaccounted for, and explained by other variables.
What does the results tell us ? Do kids laugh more at cats or dogs?

Discussion( 700 words)
Summary of the result , camparation between results and existing literature .
Specific to the study – whether there is a relationship between animals type ( cat and dogs) and laughter in young kids.If the result tell us about you and children prefer cats or dogs , how the specific study is concerned with laughter but it can be arguably to determine liking of the animals.
How the current results fit with the existing literature
Implication for the area of research and for the real world .
Limitation and future directions.

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