Topic:Nightingale’s Environmental Theory


Volume: 1 page

Type: Presentation

Format: APA


Needs to be scholarly references – for the speech and the presentation put it in notes of the power point and also a separate document for that. – if possible to include 1 audience engagement (e.g. interactive questioning; game playing) –

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE – Environmental Theory
Please discuss the following:
– Author’s underlying meaning perspectives (Person, Health, Environment, Nursing & her theory) and how these are reflected in the model
– The model’s purpose and underlying assumption
– Linking the author’s underlying meaning perspectives and the model’s purpose and underlying assumption (i.e demonstrates how ‘who the author is reflected in the model’s assumption’)

Grading criteria:
– All critical content areas are included
– Superior grasp of material (accuracy)
– Superior review in literature & integration of relevant ideas
– Creative approach to situating the author as a ‘person’ & ‘nurse’ in light of her life/experiences
– Superior analysis & synthesis of ideas
– Superior ability to make critical & insightful evaluation/ conclusions of relevant materials/information
– Superior ability to identify & present appropriate rationale/ arguments to support evaluation/ conclusion

One of the references should be written by Florence nightingale (so year of publish doesn’t matter, can go older than 10 yrs). One of the suggested reference:

Developing meaning perspectives
How individual meaning perspectives are developed and their influence on the way in which we interpret the world
Mezirow (1990) says:
Changing social norms reinforce our need to critically examine the very paradigms through which we have been taught by our culture to understand our experiences. This process of critical self-reflection has the potential for profoundly changing the way we make sense of our experience of the world, other people and ourselves. Such transformative learning, in turn, leads to action that can significantly affect the character of our interpersonal relationships, the organizations in which we work, and socialize, and the socioeconomic system itself.
What does this mean? Basically, what he is saying is that society is continually changing. Changes in behaviours force us to think in different ways – to be critical of what we have come to accept as the ‘way it is’ – and these different world views (ways of thinking about the world; paradigms) result in different ways of behaving – and the cycle repeats.
For example, fifty years ago, women were relegated to the kitchen; were not thought of in terms of their ability to work in, let alone run, large business organizations; were viewed as extensions of their spouses and families, not as individuals who contribute significantly to society; were viewed as sex objects. This perspective limited women’s choices in terms of their personal and career lives – how they were viewed by the world and how they viewed themselves. This way of thinking about women was generally accepted across North America.
Nowadays, in North American society, generally, women are not solely defined by their roles as wives and mothers, if at all. Society is thinking about women differently and women are also thinking about themselves differently. In fact, as women began to critically evaluate their own self worth and potential, their own perspectives about themselves changed. As a result, they ventured more and more into what were commonly accepted as male domains. Their perspectives changed and so their behaviours changed.
However, this paradigm change (the way in which our society views women) took many years. The fact that many women chose not to be stay-at-home moms and successfully managed (and continue to manage) large corporations (for example, Chrysler car manufacturers) has forced society to think about women from a different perspective – to alter the paradigm (world view) that defines women and their roles in our society. As women’s behaviours changed (for a variety of reasons and from a variety of impetuses), society’s attitudes/perspectives toward and about women changed. As a result, our society thinks about women in a much different way than it did half a century ago. This change in thinking (paradigm change) has enabled women to do things and take on roles that were once prohibited for the female half of the population. Think about the Playboy empire (magazines, clubs, etc.). For decades, this empire promoted the notion that women were sex objects; not to be taken seriously; easily disregarded and discarded. Now, the Playboy empire is run by the founder’s (Hugh Hefner) daughter.

Meaning perspectives
Think about the words: ‘meaning’ and ‘perspective’.
From what was said above, you already know what ‘meaning’ means.
So, what is a ‘perspective’? A ‘perspective’ is a point of view; a way of looking at something.
Mezirow (1990) tells us that our meaning perspectives are structures of assumptions, beliefs and values that constitute a frame of reference for us and that we use to interpreting the meaning of an experience (p. 21) – meaning perspectives are what we rely on to govern how we feel, experience, understand, judge and act. To simplify, our meaning perspectives are the accumulation of sets of meaning schemes. We acquire our meaning perspectives through a variety of processes: learning, socialization, brain-washing, etc.
For centuries, a large percentage of the world population (sometimes both male and female) believed that women were inferior to men. From infancy, boys and girls were raised very differently – certain behaviours (for example, aggression, strength, intellect) were expected and required from boys while other behaviours (for example, passivity, fragility, stupidity) were expected – and often required – from girls.
Boys were valued over girls; there was a belief that boys were smarter, stronger, superior. Girls were duller, weaker, inferior. It was assumed that boys would do better in school, sports, business, science where their brain and brawn would position them to be successful. It was assumed that girls, on the other hand, could not succeed in these arenas – in fact, were excluded from these arenas – because it was believed that they would not be able to ‘cut it’ – to be successful. As a result, females were excluded from these various activities.
This difference in perspective between males and females was learned – people were socialized to value boys above girls; to believe that boys had the ability to succeed in the ‘real world’ and girls did not; to assume that boys would be more successful than girls in that ‘real world’. This meaning perspective concerning men and women governed society’s behaviour – girls were excluded from higher education, competitive sports, career opportunities.
In some cultures, this meaning perspective prevails and males are still valued and advantaged over females.
Think for a minute about how you feel about someone of another culture, religion, gender orientation. Do you value that person as a human being? Do you believe that person is fundamentally ‘different’ from you or basically the same (that is, you’re both human beings)? Do you assume certain things about that person and, therefore, have expectations of their behaviour?
Racism is a behaviour. The way in which you answered the above questions will depend on your meaning perspective. If you answered those questions one way (that is, yes, people of other cultures are different/inferior) then you will treat people from other cultures in a certain way that demonstrates these values, beliefs and assumptions – you will act in a racist way. Your meaning perspective will govern how you behave toward people of other cultures. How did you come to value/believe/assume these negative thoughts/feelings about people of other cultures? You were taught – maybe by your family, your peers, your community. You were socialized to have these values/beliefs/assumptions.
Your meaning perspective will impact on how well you do in this degree program. If you value advanced learning and believe/assume it will assist you in your practice as a nurse, you will put effort into your studies and work hard to do well. If your education is important to you, why is it important to you? You would have been socialized to value education and learning, perhaps from the time you were younger or perhaps as a result of your experiences with learning and/or through your own practice experience.

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